Learn more about PMUs and Linear State Estimator (LSE)
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Partner with leading experts in the field to integrate the PMU based Linear State Estimator (LSE) in your processes and harness the power of synchrophasors. Make the transition from data to actionable information and take advantage of the LSE’s unique characteristics:
- Forget about solution convergence: the linear state estimator guarantees convergence.
- Data conditioning: enable PMU applications by ensuring a continuous stream of reliable data.
- Provide an independent and redundant back-up to your traditional state estimator.
- The Linear State Estimator is open source and has a large community working to improve its capabilities.
Download the Linear State Estimator
The Linear State Estimator is open source. Follow this link to download the code. →
Enjoy the technical publications of our team.
Three-Phase Linear State Estimation with Phasor Measurements
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Given the ability of the Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) to directly measure the system state and the increasing implementation of PMUs across the electric power industry, a natural expansion of state estimation techniques would be one that employed the exclusive use of PMU data. Dominion Virginia Power and the Department of Energy (DOE) are sponsoring a research project which aims to implement a three phase linear tracking state estimator on Dominion‟s 500kV network that would use only PMU measurements to compute the system state. This thesis represents a portion of the work completed during the initial phase of the research project. This includes the initial development and testing of two applications: the three phase linear state estimator and the topology processor. Also presented is a brief history of state estimation and PMUs, traditional state estimation techniques and techniques with mixed phasor data, a development of the linear state estimation algorithms and a discussion of the future work associate with this research project.
Methodology for a Security/Dependability Adaptive Protection Scheme Based on Data Mining
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Recent blackouts offer testimonies of the crucial role played by protection relays in a reliable power system. It is argued that embracing the paradigm shift of adaptive protection is a fundamental step toward a reliable power grid. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology to implement a security/dependability adaptive protection scheme. The advocated methodology aims to reduce the likelihood of manifestation of hidden failures and potential cascading events by adjusting the security/dependability balance of protection systems. The proposed methodology is based on wide-area measurements obtained with the aid of phasor measurement units. A data-mining algorithm, known as decision trees, is used to classify the power system state and to predict the optimal security/dependability bias of a critical protection scheme. The methodology is tested on a detailed 4000-bus system.
Implementation of an Adaptive Voting Scheme using synchronized phasor measurements
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This paper summarizes implementation of an Adaptive Voting Scheme (AVS), which uses Wide Area Measurements (WAMs) from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) to make a classification of the operating state of the power system using decision trees to prevent critical transmission line misoperations. Using commercially available products on the market, this scheme was proved effective and efficient for implementation in a power system setting. Laboratory testing involved functionality testing of a Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) for both PMU collection as well as a user-defined decision tree function. A hardware- and software-based PDC solution were determined to be effective means of determining the operating state of the system. Different relaying configurations including a Master-Slave and Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) set were tested and proved efficient for performing voting logic and breaker tripping.
Three-phase instrument transformer calibration with synchronized phasor measurements
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Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) utilize three-phase current and voltage transformers to obtain input signals from which the phasors are estimated. In general the instrument transformers have Ratio Correction Factors (RCFs) which can be determined by conducting on site calibration tests. These calibration tests are expensive and time-consuming and rarely performed on a system-wide basis. The errors introduced by the unknown RCFs are assumed to be a part of the overall measurement error. A novel approach of the Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) is to use the phasor measurements to automatically calibrate all the instrument transformers from which phasor data is obtained. This technique is based upon having access to at least one set of three phase voltage transformers (reference transformers) with known accurate Ratio Correction Factors. Potential Transformers (PTs) or special accurate Capacitive Voltage Transformers (CVTs) are often available as a source of reference for this purpose. This paper explains the theory of this calibration procedure, and using simulations on a power system model. It is shown that very accurate RCFs of all the current and voltage transformers can be obtained. This calibration function is being implemented on the Dominion Virginia Power (DVP) System. It is of course implied that any other measurement system – for example SCADA – which uses the same instrument transformers will benefit from this calibration procedure.
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